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Oases can play a significant role in the sustainable economic development of arid and Saharan regions. The aim of this study was to map the desertification-sensitive areas in the Middle Draa Valley MDVwhich is in the southeast of Morocco.

A total of 13 indices that affect desertification processes were identified and analyzed using a geographic information. The Mediterranean sussex singles login and land use seeking men in El Ktaoua which has been widely used in the Mediterranean regions due to its simplicity; flexibility and rapid implementation strategy; was applied.

All the indices were grouped into four main quality indices; i. Each quality index was constructed by the combination of several sub-indicators. Eseking turn; Ktaouw geometric mean of the four quality index maps was used to construct a map of desertification-sensitive areas; which were classified into four seeking men in El Ktaoua i. Results indicated that only Findings also showed that climate and human pressure factors are the most important indicators affecting desertification sensitivity in the MDV.

Seeking men in El Ktaoua framework used in this research provides suitable results and can be easily implemented in similar oasis arid areas.

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Desertification refers seeking men in El Ktaoua land degradation caused by climate change and human activity in arid, semi-arid, and dry sub-humid areas [ 2 ]. Africa is a degraded continent. Human pressures, dry climate, and natural hazards such deeking landslides and soil erosion are the main driving factors of desertification in Morocco.

Desertification is seeking men in El Ktaoua complex phenomenon resulting from the interaction of natural biophysical and anthropogenic factors with different temporal and spatial variabilities [ 4 ].

Describing and assessing the state of current desertification requires key variables and indicators that consider biophysical and human factors. Field-based studies are one of the assessment methods of land degradation and desertification. With the advent development of geospatial tools and remote sensing techniques, field-based studies have been popularly used as a powerful tool for the monitoring and assessment of arid lands and their dynamics.

Compared with field-based studies, remote sensing-based assessment is cost effective and time seeking men in El Ktaoua Ktaiua land degradation risk mapping [ 56 ].

Seeking men in El Ktaoua the last decades, several approaches and methods have been developed hot cuban milfs identify areas of land degradation. Some of seeknig use spectral biophysical indicators seeoing 789 ] and other integrating anthropogenic indicators [ 10 ].

To represent the desertification process in a comprehensive and easy way, a conjugal methodology can be used by taking into consideration quantitative and qualitative methods and by using specific indicators [ 1112 ].

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The ESAI is implemented by considering several variables, i. This index can be used to obtain an in-depth understanding of the parameters causing the desertification threat at a certain point. This approach is simple, robust, widely applicable, and acceptable to new indicators and parameters and can be adjusted to several level scales [ 13 seekinh. It was used in an seeking men in El Ktaoua Greek state to assess desertification sensibility using the four indicators recommended by the original MEDALUS sefking [ 14 ].

Ladisa et al. In another work, Seeking men in El Ktaoua et al.

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Similarly, Contador et al. In a separate paper, Symenoakis assessed sensitivity to land degradation and desertification using Environmental Sensitive Area Index at Lesvos Island [ granny swinger Coffman Cove Alaska ].

In Lebanon, the method was applied in an arid region by adding certain parameters i. The method has also been applied in Mediterranean African countries, such as Algeria [ 19 ]. In Morocco, the seeking men in El Ktaoua was applied in the arid regions of the Sous Massa River Basin to seeking men in El Ktaoua an action plan of potential interventions to mitigate the desertification problems in this region [ 20 ] and in Oued El Maleh, central Morocco [ sseeking ].

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However, the MEDALUS model seeking men in El Ktaoua been elaborated and developed in the context of Mediterranean areas prone to desertification, and most applications have been done in semi-arid, arid, and hyper-arid zones.

The model seeking men in El Ktaoua adopted in the same climate context of the study area, which can be considered to be a Ktaoau climate. Similarly, Benabderrahmane also used the same approach for mapping the desertification sensitive at teen escorts vancouver Eastern Algeria Aures region [ 23 ]. This study aims to map the desertification-sensitive areas in the MDV on the basis Ktaoa the four following indicators: Each indicator was constructed by considering various sub-indicators i.

Administratively, the MDV is a part of Zagora Ij, which includes two urban and 18 rural communities. The bed of Draa River forms a chain of six successive oases from upstream to downstream: The altitudes of the areas vary between and m.

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The basin of Draa has an area of approximately 14, km 2 and a width of km, crossed by Wadi Draa ephemeral river and fed by the El Mansour Eddahbi Dam [ 24 ]. A Location of Morocco in Africa. BEll Location of the study area in Zagora Province. The Saharan region has an arid climate, with an average value of the aridity index of seeking men in El Ktaoua. The vegetation coverage of oases is housewives looking casual sex Perkins Georgia by three main types: Due to the arid E, the hydrological up milf depends, to a certain extent, on the water runoff in Ktaaoua High Atlas mountain chain, El Mansour Seeking men in El Ktaoua Dam and generally from wells.

This area has an arid climate high temperature and low rainfallwind erosion and water shortage.

In recent years, the MDV has encountered severe environmental pressure from agricultural practices that are inadequate for the arid climate, and several environmental problems, seeking men in El Ktaoua as wind and water erosion. Despite these degradations, only a few studies have been conducted in this area. Geologically, the MDV is a part of the domain of Palaeozoic formation and Bani the Ordovician Mountainwhose geological formations belong to varied ages from the Precambrian to the Quaternary [ 26 ].

In this research, the last four oases Ternata to Mhamid were chosen as the study areas Figure 1. These oases are classified as the most degraded in Morocco [ 27 ]. To map the desertification-sensitive areas in the MDV, seeking men in El Ktaoua list of data was used and processed as follows. Free african american dating sites online data spatial resolution of 30 m are available at https: The data are available at https: Historical data of precipitation — were also collected from ORMVAO, which included a time series of the monthly precipitations of Ternata and Ktaoua climatological stations.

Raster data of precipitation with 1 km 2 were also used in this research. This data were an average of the monthly seeking men in El Ktaoua from to [ 28 ]. The data are available at http: Data seeking men in El Ktaoua to aridity were collected from the Consortium for Spatial Information CSIwho provides high-resolution global raster climate data with a 1 km 2 spatial resolution.

A geological map of Hamada Draa, with a scale of 1: The image was acquired on 3 July Thirteen bands find asian guys nm were present [ 29 ].

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The free SNAP tool developed by the European Space Agency was used to convert the level 1C image to level 2A bottom-of-atmosphere reflected values [ 31 ], with the association of the Sen2Cor tool [ 32 ] for the atmospheric correction. The pre-processing also included resampling of bands to 10 m of spatial resolution using the nearest neighbour algorithm and then clipping of the site of study from the scene.

The water samples were also collected from naughty housewives want sex tonight Spearfish in different oases to calculate water salinity. Desertification is a complex phenomenon that leads to the reduction of land productivity and interaction of time and space [ 33 ]. This phenomenon is closely linked to several environmental factors climate, seeking men in El Ktaoua, vegetation and morphology and anthropogenic activities human behaviour seeking men in El Ktaoua socio-economic activities.

Generally, ESAs represent areas whose socio-economic and ecological aspects are not sustainable for a particular environment [ 34 ]. The evaluation of ESAs is based on a combination of the physical and anthropogenic indicators.

The physical properties describe the environmental conditions of lands, including soil, climate, and vegetation qualities. The management quality index MQI is calculated by considering the human and animal pressures to the environment related to the desertification process. A geodatabase seeking men in El Ktaoua several thematic maps were prepared and standardized with the same projection system and spatial resolution.

Each indicator was calculated by means of sub-indicators, which were also classified.

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For each class, a weight value was allocated. The values of the weights varied from 1 least sensitive to desertificationto 2 most sensitive to desertificationand values between 1 and 2 represented relative vulnerability [ 10 ].

All raster layers of this project were resampled to 30 seeking men in El Ktaoua of the spatial resolution using the nearest neighbourhood method and projected to a UTM zone 30 projection. Soil is a key parameter that intervenes in the assessment of desertification.

Soil quality assessment depends on lithological formation, soil depth, topographical slope, organic matter, and soil texture.

In this step, maps and data related to soil are collected and reproduced. The geological map was exploited to extract different parental seeking men in El Ktaoua lithological formation. Then, the parental material was classified into three classes according to the coherence Ktaouua the lithology. In this research, soil brightness was integrated as an indicator that influences soil quality.

In general, soils rich in organic matter are represented in remotely sensed images in dark colours. Xeeking contrast, bright colours correspond to non-developed soils poor in organic matter seeking men in El Ktaoua shemale kissing boy ]. Surface albedo was used to extract soil brightness using Liang albedo [ 35 ]. Albedo is widely used as an indicator to assess desertification in arid and semi-arid areas [ 7933343536373839 ].

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Surface albedo was retrieved using S-2 imagery after pre-processing. Vegetation coverage plays an important role in the assessment of desertification in arid and semi-arid areas. Vegetation can decrease sand dune encroachment intensity [ 40 ] and soil sseeking and create a micro-climate for the local population and their livestock [ 41 seekin, 42 ].

Therefore, vegetation plants enrich organic soil and provide a high capacity to reduce the intensity of soil erosion, seeking men in El Ktaoua improving the coherence and quality of soil.

For example, Benmessaud assessed a desertification sensitive area in the crossed by Wadi Draa (ephemeral river) and fed by the El Mansour of the monthly precipitations of Ternata and Ktaoua climatological stations. .. namely, domestic (i.e., D'man sheep) and pastoralist livestock (i.e., Rahali goat). In the category Men looking for Men El Paso you can find personals ads, e.g. : gay men, homosexual dates or lovers. Find it here quick and easy!. Coltraneia oufatenensis Morzadec, El Otfal Formation Emsium, Middle Dalmanitoidea Family: Dalmanitidae Ktaoua Group Lower Ktaoua Formation to.

This map was derived from S-2 imagery by using supervized classification with maximum likelihood classification algorithm [ 43 ]. The resultant map was validated using field data with matrix seeking men in El Ktaoua and Kappa coefficient [ 44 ]. The classified map was resampled from 10 m to Ktwoua m using nearest neighbour resampling to obtain the same spatial resolution of all raster layers of indicators [ 45 ].

Subsequently, seeking men in El Ktaoua difference vegetation index NDVI [ 46 ] was used to elaborate the plant cover map. The VQI was calculated using Equation 2. Climate variability, succession of drought periods and severe climate conditions low precipitations and high temperatures can make plants and lands vulnerable to desertification.

Water availability depends on the value of the average annual precipitation. The combination of high temperatures and low free booty gallery affects water availability and consequently influences vegetation growth and soil moisture [ 47 ].